MM SG Campaignology

Campaignology (战役学)*:

MM-SG-Campaigns (Link to PDF)

战役的定义 The Definition of Campaign
Campaign — is an operational activity comprised of a series of battles carried out under a unified command by a legion (军团) in order to accomplish a partial objective or overall objective of war. 战役,是军团为达成战争的局部⽬的或全局性⽬的,在统⼀指挥下进⾏的由⼀系列战⽃组成的作战⾏动。

战役的本质要素 Essential Elements of Campaign:
⼒量 Power; ⽬的 Objective; 指挥 Command; 组成 Organization

武装⽃争的三个层次 The Three Levels of Armed Conflict
– 战争 War – 战略 Strategy
– 战役 Campaign – 战役(法) Campaign (methods)
– 战⽃ Battle – 战术 Tactics

⾼技术局部战争条件下 – Under conditions of high tech localized war
信息化条件下的局部战争 – Localized war under informationized conditions

战役的分类 Categorization of Campaigns
– 按作战性质:进攻战役 和 防御战役
By Essence of the Operation: Offensive Campaigns & Defensive Campaigns
– 按参战军种:联合战役 和 军种(合同)战役
By Services Participating in the Op: Joint Campaigns and Service (Combined) Campaigns
– 按作战空间:陆上战役、海上战役、和 空中战役
By Operational Domain: Land Campaigns, Sea Campaigns, and Air Campaigns
– 按作战形式:机动战战役、阵地战战役、和 游击战战役
By Operational Form: Mobile Campaigns, Positional Campaigns, and Guerrilla Campaigns
– 按作战规模:战区战略性战役、战区独⽴⽅向战役、和 集团军战役
By Scale of Op: Theater Strategic Campaign, Theater Independent Direction Campaign, and Group Army Campaign

战役客观要素 Objective Elements of Campaigns:
1. ⼒量 Power、2. 战场 Battlefield、3. 时间 Time

The Basic Elements of Campaign Power:
1. 信息⼒ Information Power
2. ⽕⼒ Fire Power
3. 机动⼒ Mobile Power
4. 突击⼒ Assault Power
5. 防护⼒ Protection Power
1. ⼒量 Power

The Derivative Elements of Campaign Power
1. 侦察能⼒ Reconnaissance Capability
2. 电⼦战能⼒ EW Capability
3. 指挥控制能⼒ C2 Capability
4. 作战保障能⼒ Operational Sustainment Capability
5. 后勤和装备保障能⼒ Logistic and Armaments Sustainment Capability

* 《战役学》 The Science of Campaigns (Operational Art); NDU Publishing House, 2006 edition, ISBN 7-5626-1497-0

现代军事⾏动的样式 Types of Modern Military Activities

– 战争于冲突 War and Conflict
o ⼤规模地区性冲突 Large Scale Regional Conflicts
o 局部战争 Localized War
o 全⾯战争 Total War

– ⾮战争军事⾏动 Non-War Military Actions (NWMA, or MOOTW)
o 提供安全和⼈道主义援助 Provide Security and Humanitarian Assistance
o 抢险救灾 Disaster Rescue and Relief
o 缉毒 Drug Interdiction
o 维持和平 Peacekeeping
o 打击恐怖活动 Fight Terrorist Activities
o 反暴乱 Counter-Rebellion
o ⽀援他国地⽅政府 Support to Other Governments and Regions
o 撤运⾮战⽃⼈员 Evacuate Non-Combatants

战役⼒量的趋势 The Trend of Campaign Power
– 三位⼀体、⼩型化、⼀体化
Three Forming an Organic Whole (bringing together front line forces, deployable forces, and reserve component),
Reducing the size of campaign power, and
Integrating campaign power
– 联合战役军团编组形式:作战集团;按作战空间编组、按作战任务编组
Organization Models of Joint Campaign Formations:
Operations Group (similar to JTF); organized based on operational domain, or based on task

2. 战场 Battlefield
The Modern Battlefield: Ground, Sea, Air, Space, Electro(-magnetic)

陆战场环境 Ground Battlefield Environment
– ⾃然地理环境:地貌(⼭地、丘陵、平原、特殊地形荒漠等)、⽔⽂、⽓象
– ⾮⾃然环境:⼈⽂环境、经济条件、交通运输和通信
海战场环境 Sea Battlefield Environment
– ⾃然环境:海洋构成(海岸、濒陆区、海峡、岛礁、开阔海区、海底地貌)、海洋⽔⽂、海洋⽓象
– ⾮⾃然环境:海洋⼈⽂环境、经济条件、交通运输和通信、海洋及海战法规
空战场环境 Air Battlefield Environment
– ⾃然环境:云和降⽔、⻛、能⻅度
太空战场环境 Space Battlefield Environment
– ⾃然环境:地球引⼒、温度、真空、有害辐射、失重
电磁战场环境 Electro-Magnetic Battlefield Environment
– “⾁眼看不⻅、⽆形的”

3. 时间 Time
1. 要着⼒优化时间和空间关系 Focus on optimizing the relationship between time and space
2. 要适时利⽤和积极创造有利的时机 Make use of and actively create favorable timing
3. 要有⾜够的战役准备时间 Have sufficient campaign preparation time
4. 要善于把握战役节奏 To be skilled at grasping the campaign rhythm/tempo
5. 要正确认识和处理“速决”与“持久”的关系 To correctly understand and manage the relationship
between “quick decisive (victory)” and “protracted (conflict).”

战役基本原则 Basic Principles of Campaigns

– 知彼知⼰,正确预⻅战役发展
Know the Enemy, Know Yourself; Accurately Envision the Campaign Development
– 充分准备,不打⽆把握之仗
Fully Prepare; Fight No Uncertain Battles
– 集中⼒量,实⾏⾮对称作战
Concentrate Power; Carry Out Asymmetric Operation
– 夺取和保持主动,有效控制战场
Seize and Maintain Initiative; Effectively Control the Battlefield
– 隐蔽突然,出敌不意
Conceal Surprise; Catch the Enemy by Surprise
– 积极进攻,攻防结合
Proactive Offensive; Combine Offense and Defense
– 连续作战,⼒争速战速决
Persistent Operations; Strive for a Quick Battle to Force a Quick Decision
– 统⼀指挥,密切协调
Unified Command; Close Coordination
– 整体重点精确保障
Holistic Focused and Accurate Sustainment
– 发挥政治优势
Give Full Play to Political Superiority

战役准备 Campaign Preparation:
战役筹划 Campaign Planning (* note: 筹划 is conceptual or general planning, 计划 is calculated or detailed planning)

战役⽅针 Campaign Guidance

战役⽅针是解放军⻓期战争实践积累作战指挥的特⾊. The Campaign Guidance is a special characteristic of
operational command in the PLA resulting from a long history of accumulated practical war experience.

战役⽅针通常由上级确定,有时可以由战役指挥员提出、报上级批准. The Campaign Guidance is typically set by
higher (HHQ), but occasionally can be proposed by the Campaign Commander and sent to higher for approval.

战役⽅针内容 Contents of a Campaign Guidance
o 战役⽬的 Campaign Purpose
o 作战⽅向 Operational Direction(s)
o 作战⽬标 Operational Objectives
o 战役⼒量使⽤ Use of Campaign Power
o 战法 Combat Methods
o 战役阶段 Campaign Phases

战役决⼼ Campaign Decision

战役决⼼是根据进⼀步掌握的情况,在战役⽅针的基础上,对作战的主要问题做出最后的决断,是制定战役 计划、
组织战役协同、实施战役的根据. The Campaign Decision is the final decision taken (by the commander) regarding the main problem
of the operation, based upon the foundation of the Campaign Guidance (provided by higher) and a further developed deeper mastery of
the situation — it is the basis for setting the Campaign Plan, organizing the Campaign Coordination, and carrying out the campaign.

战役决⼼内容 Contents of a Campaign Decision
o 战役⽬的 Campaign Purpose
o 主要作战⽅向 Main Operational Direction(s)
o 战役布势 Campaign Arrangement
o 基本战法 Basic Combat Methods
o 战役阶段划分 Delineation of Campaign Phases
o 战役发起时间 Campaign Initiation Time

定下战役决⼼的程序、⽅法 Procedures for Determining the Campaign Decision
o 了解任务 Gain an Understanding of the Mission
o 判断情况 Judge the Situation
▪ 敌情 Enemy Situation
▪ 我情 Own Situation
▪ 战场环境 Battlefield Environment
o 听取报告和建议 Receive Reports and Recommendations (from staff sections and subordinate units)
o 进⾏战役计算 Carry Out Campaign Calculations
o 做出决断 Make a Decision

战役计划 Campaign Plan
o 情况判断结论 Conclusion of the Situation Judgement
o 上级意图和作战任务 Intent and Operational Mission of Higher
o 友邻任务及战⽃分界线 Mission and Combat Boundaries of Neighboring Friendly Units
o 各部队的编成、配置和任务 Composition, Disposition and Mission of Each Unit
o 战役阶段划分 Delineation of Campaign Phases
o 各阶段情况预想及处置⽅案 The Anticipated Situation in Each Phase, and Scheme for Dealing with it.
o 指挥的组织 Organization of Command
o 完成作战准备的时限 Time Limit for Completing Operational Preparations
o 预定战役发起和结束的时间 Pre-arranged Time for Campaign Initiation and Conclusion
o 分⽀计划 Branch (component) Plans
▪ 反侦察计划 Counter Reconnaissance Plan
▪ 夺取制控权和制海权战役计划 Campaign Plan for Seizing Air and Sea Superiority
▪ 主要⽅向作战运动计划 Main Direction Operational Activities Plan
▪ 反空袭(防空)计划 Counter Air Strike (Air Defense) Plan
▪ ⽕⼒计划 Firepower Plan
▪ 特种作战计划 Special Operations Plan
▪ ⼼理作战计划 Psychological Operations Plan
▪ 后⽅防卫计划 Rear Area Defense/Safeguard Plan

战役实施 Campaign Execution:

战役重要⾏动 Campaign Major Actions
– 战役信息战 Campaign Information Warfare
– 战役⽕⼒突击 Campaign Firepower Strike
– 战役机动 Campaign Mobility
– 战役特种作战 Campaign Special Operations
– 战役⼼理作战 Campaign Psychological Operations

战役保障 Campaign Sustainment

– 作战保障 Operational Sustainment
o 侦察情报保障 Reconnaissance and Intelligence Sustainment
o 通信保障 Communications Sustainment
o ⼯程保障 Engineering Sustainment
o 伪装 Camouflage
o 交通保障 Transportation Sustainment
o WMD 防护 WMD Protection
o ⽓象⽔⽂保障 Weather and Hydrology Sustainment
o 测绘保障 Cartography Sustainment
o 战场管制 Battlefield Management

– 后勤保障 Logistics Sustainment
o 物资保障 Materials Sustainment
o 卫勤保障 Health Services Sustainment
o 经费保障 Finance Sustainment
o 运输勤务 Transportation Services
o 后勤防卫 Logistics Defense and Safeguard

– 装备保障 Armaments Sustainment
o 武器装备损坏预计 Weapon Equipment Damage Estimates
o 武器装备的维修 Weapon Equipment Maintenance

– 政治⼯作 Political Work
o 思想⼯作 Ideological Work
o 组织⼯作 Organization Work
o ⼲部⼯作 Cadre Work
o 保卫⼯作 Security Work
o 群众⼯作 Mass Work
o 敌军⼯作 Enemy Work (research about the enemy, as well as actions to undermine the enemy)
o 新闻媒体运⽤和控制 News Media Use and Control

联合战役指挥 Joint Campaign Command
– 三级战役指挥体制 Three Level Campaign Command Structure
o 第⼀级为 多战区联合战役指挥部 1st Level: Multi-Theater Joint Command
Formed with representatives from each theater (战区), each service, and other relevant personnel,
often includes a staff group sent forward from the Supreme Command (统帅部)
o 第⼆级为 战区⽅向指挥部 2nd Level: Theater Direction Command
Commonly formed based on a single theater (战区) or service headquarters
o 第三级为 战役军团指挥部 3rd Level: Campaign Corps Command
Commonly formed of each participating Campaign Corps (战役军团) from each service
In the Army, typically built upon a Group Army (集团军) or Corps (军) headquarters
– 指挥所体系 Command Post Set-up
o 基本指挥所、预备指挥所、后⽅指挥所,根据需要建⽴:前进(⽅向)指挥所
Basic Command Post, Reserve Command Post, Rear Area Command Post, and as needed
establish Forward Command Post and/or Direction Command Post(s)
– 指挥机构 Command Internal Organization Structure
o 作战中⼼、情报中⼼、通信中⼼、保障中⼼
Operations Center, Intelligence Center, Comms Center, and Sustainment Centers
o 综合⽕⼒协调中⼼、信息作战中⼼
Integrated Fires Coordination Center, Information Operations Center

联合战役 Joint Campaigns
– 联合封锁战役 Joint Blockade Campaign
– 登陆战役 Landing Campaign
– 反空袭击战役 Anti-Air Raid Campaign
陆军战役 Army Campaigns
– 机动战战役 Mobile Warfare Campaign
– ⼭地进攻战役 Mountain Region Attack Campaign
– 阵地进攻战役 Positional Offensive Campaign
– 阵地防御战役 Positional Defensive Campaign
– 反恐维稳作战 Anti-Terror Maintain Stability Operations
海军战役 Naval Campaigns
– 消灭敌海上兵⼒集团战役 Destroy Enemy Surface Battle Group Campaign
– 海上破交战役 At-Sea Break SLOCs Campaign
– 对珊瑚岛礁进攻战役 Attack Coral/Islands/Reefs/Shoal Campaign
– 海上保交战役 At-Sea Secure SLOCs Campaign
– 海军基地防御战役 Naval Base Defense Campaign
空军战役 Air Force Campaigns
– 空中进攻战役 Mid-air Offensive Campaign
– 空降战役 Airborne Campaign
– 防空战役 Air Defense Campaign
第⼆炮兵战役 Second Artillery Force Campaign
– 第⼆炮兵常规导弹突击战役 Second Artillery Force Conventional Missile Strike Campaign